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|· 영문제목||Extracellular Fluid/Intracellular Fluid Volume Ratio as a Novel Risk Indicator for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Hemodialysis Patients|
|· 저자||Kim EJ, Choi MJ, Lee JH, Oh JE, Seo JW, Lee YK, Yoon JW, Kim HJ, Noh JW, Koo JR.|
|· 발행정보||PLoS One|
In hemodialysis patients, fluid overload and malnutrition are accompanied by extracellular fluid (ECF) expansion and intracellular fluid (ICF) depletion, respectively. We investigated the relationship between ECF/ICF ratio (as an integrated marker reflecting both fluid overload and malnutrition) and survival and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the context of malnutrition-inflammation-arteriosclerosis (MIA) complex.
Seventy-seven patients from a single hemodialysis unit were prospectively enrolled. The ECF/ICF volume was measured by segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. MIA and volume status were measured by serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), respectively.
The mean ECF/ICF ratio was 0.56±0.06 and the cut-off value for maximum discrimination of survival was 0.57. Compared with the low ECF/ICF group, the high ECF/ICF group (ratio≥0.57, 42%) had higher all-cause mortality, CVD, CRP, PWV, and BNP, but lower serum albumin. During the 5-year follow-up, 24 all-cause mortality and 38 CVD occurred (18 and 24, respectively, in the high ECF/ICF group versus 6 and 14 respectively in the low ECF/ICF group, P<0.001). In the adjusted Cox analysis, the ECF/ICF ratio nullifies the effects of the MIA and volume status on survival and CVD and was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and CVD: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval); 1.12 (1.01–1.25) and 1.09 (1.01–1.18) for a 0.01 increase in the ECF/ICF ratio. The degree of malnutrition (albumin), inflammation (CRP), arteriosclerosis (PWV), and fluid overload (BNP) were correlated well with the ECF/ICF ratio.
Hemodialysis patients with high ECF/ICF ratio are not only fluid overloaded, but malnourished and have stiff artery with more inflammation. The ECF/ICF ratio is highly related to the MIA complex, and is a major risk indicator for all-cause mortality and CVD.